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V- stands for Visualization or mental imagery within the C.U.D.I.T.® VBS system. It is the lens through which we see ourselves, a mental rehearsal, a video of the upcoming performance.

A [1] study by Holmes, Whitemore, Collins and Devonport ("The Effect of Theoretically-Based Imagery Scripts on Field Hockey Performance) examined the application of imagery of performance by studying 27 novice hockey players who were assigned to either an imagery group or a control group.

Participants in one of the imagery groups received stimulus and response proposition-laden imagery scripts, while the other received stimulus proposition only scripts. All imagery participants imagined performing twenty penalty flicks three times a week for seven weeks with no physical practice and control participants performed no imagery or physical practice during this period.

The response proposition group improved to a significantly greater degree than the stimulus opposition-only group which in turn showed greater improvement than the control. This supports the bio-informational theory and indicated that imagery scripts should be composed with response propositions to maximize their effectiveness. These results provide strong support for the effectiveness of imagery as a means of enhancing athletic performance, as both imagery groups improved significantly greater degree than the control group. This study was published in Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 4 in 2001.

[2] Extensive interviews conducted with eight members of the 1996 Italian Olympic archers team regarding psychological factors associated with excellence in mental preparation strategies reveled that positive expectations, concentration, facilitating emotions, body awareness, and technical preparationwere the mental aspects necessary for effective performance.

The archers outlined a variety of mental preparation strategies including autonomic control (emotional control), somatic control, internal dialogue, imagery (visualization and self talk), task focused concentration (body and action control) and reaction to mistake (focus on the correct execution, mistake disregard, shooting analysis).

The results indicate that mental rehearsal and the use of self-talk to support the imagery for training and competition serves the function of focusing attentions, prompting execution and building confidence. This is also supported by studies by Jones and Hardy, 1990,, Orlick & Partington, 1988, and Murphy 1994.

Visualization training tips include: seeing, feeling, and hearing. These tips are taught to the athlete during their private lesson with a Licensed CUDIT® Coach. It is important for the athlete to understand how to, truly, visualize their performance when learning to train 90% of the game: the MIND.


Smith[1] , D., Holmes P., Whitemore, L., Collins, D., Devonport, T., (2001) The effect of theoretically-based imagery scripts on field hockey performance , pp. 408-419, Jounral of Sport Behavior, Vol 24(4)

Robazza[2] , C. & Bortoli, L. (1998) Mental Preparation Strategies of Olympic Archers during Competition: An exploratory Investigation, pp. 219-235, High Ability Studies, Vol 9 (2)

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